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Plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden

The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States

plant

Common Name
White Wood Aster

 

Scientific Name
Eurybia divaricata (L.) G. L. Nesom

 

Plant Family
Aster (Asteraceae)

Garden Location
Woodland

 

Prime Season
Late Summer to Early Autumn

 

 

Stems: White Wood Aster is an erect perennial that grows from 1 to 2-1/2 feet tall. Stems tend to have a slight zigzag to them and they can be spreading or sprawling. The stem within the inflorescence has dense very fine hair.

Leaves are large and thin, ovate-lanceolate in shape with heart shaped bases, sharp coarse teeth on the margins, a pointed tip that usually has a twist to it. If there is any leaf hair it will be sparse. The underside may have have, particularly along the veins. Lower leaves are on long stalks. Upper leaves will be much smaller with short stalks, sometimes stalkless. The more basal leaves will drop by flowering time.

The inflorescence is a loose grouping of somewhat flat-topped branched clusters (Corymbs) branching from the top part of the stem. In a corymb the flower stalks are of different length so that the flowers form a flat-topped cluster. Several long green bracts may appear among the flowers.

The flowers are about one inch wide composed of two types of florets: 5 to 10+ white ray florets that are pistillate and fertile, surrounding a central disc of 12 to 19+ long, tubular, bisexual, fertile, yellow disc florets that turn reddish at maturity. The shorter lobes of the corolla are erect to spreading during flowering. The stamens, surrounding the style and appressed to it, protrude from the corolla. The petals of the ray florets can also have a lilac tinge of color. They also seem to pointing in various directions. The phyllaries of the flower head number 25 to 30 in 4 to 5 series, unequal in size, are rounded to pointed in shape and are whitish with dark green tips. The inner series can have a purplish tinge. Flower stalks are hairy.

Seeds are a brown dry achene with 7 to 10 ribs and with a few fine reddish to cream colored bristles and hair for wind dispersion.

 

Habitat: White Wood Aster grows from a creeping branched rhizome, which will form colonies. It prefers the drier, well drained soil of open woods in partial to full shade. Best to plant in an area where it can sprawl out as the flower clusters held above the leaves are quite showy.

Names: The species was formerly named Aster divaricatus, however, all the new world asters, formerly in the genus Aster, have now been reclassified, most into the genus Symphyotrichum, several, like this species, to Eurybia. The genus Eurybia is from two Greek words - eurys meaning 'wide' and baiso, meaning 'few', alluding to the few wide-spreading ray florets. The species name, divaricata, refers to the 'spreading' or 'growing in a straggling' habit. Asters in the Eurybia genus have cordate leaves (heart-shaped bases), disc florets with long tubes and funnelform to campanulate throats. The author name for the plant classification - ‘G. L. Nesom’ is for Guy L. Nesom (b. 1945) American botanist who has published papers on the nomenclature of asters. He updated the work of the original author - '(L.)' which refers to Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist and the developer of the binomial nomenclature of modern taxonomy.

Comparisons: The most likely species to confuse with this one is it's sister in the Eurybia genus, the Bigleaf Aster, E. macrophylla. Differences are that E. divaricata has white petals with little or no lilac color, fewer rays per flower head, and the leaves are only on the flowering stem, whereas E. macrophylla has more lilac color, 9 to 20 rays, and has basal leaves plus stem leaves. The Heart-leaved Aster, Symphyotrichum cordifolium, also have similar leaves, but the flower panicle is rounded, not flattened.

See bottom of page for notes on the Garden's planting history, distribution in Minnesota and North America, lore and other references.

White Wood Aster Flower detail

Above and Below: The flowers of White Wood Aster are composed of 5 to 10+ white ray petals surrounding a central disc of numerous yellow disc florets that turn reddish at maturity. The petals can also have a lilac tinge of color. They also seem to pointing in various directions. The phyllaries of the flower head (below left) have rounded to pointed in shape and are whitish with dark green tips. Note also the larger green bract on the stalk.

Phyllaries White Wood Aster flower

Below: 1st photo - The flower clusters of the inflorescence are somewhat flat-topped and not dense. 2nd photo - Lower leaves are large and thin, ovate-lanceolate in shape with heart shaped bases, coarse teeth on the margins, a pointed tip that usually has a twist to it. 3rd photo - The stem has a slight zigzag pattern.

plant lower leaf Stem

Below: The seed head with individual seeds - both from the disc florets.

Seed head seeds
White Wood Aster

Notes:

Notes: White Wood Aster, formerly classified as Aster divaricatus L., is not native to the State. It is native to the eastern United States and in Canada to Quebec and Ontario where it is considered rare and endangered. It was originally brought into the Garden by Eloise Butler in 1911 from Gillett's Nursery in Southwick, MA. She reported planting it on May 17th, 1911 along with a group of other species obtained from Gillett's Nursery. In her report to the Board of Park Commissioners in 1915, Eloise discussed the asters of the Garden. Her only comment on this species was that it had entirely died out. Martha Crone first planted it on Sept. 18, 1937, however, it escaped being on Martha Crone's 1951 Garden Census, but is present again today. Eurybia macrophylla (the Bigleaf or Large-leaved Aster) is the only species of Eurybia native to Minnesota.

References and site links

References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applied. Distribution principally from W1, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.

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