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Plants of the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden
The oldest public wildflower garden in the United States

Common
Name

Scientific
Name

Plant
Family

Garden
Location

Prime
Season

Northern Blazing Star

Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell

[Old = Liatris borealis]

Aster (Asteraceae)
Upland
Late Summer to Autumn
Other names and notes

(New England Blazing Star, Northern Gayfeather). Blazing Stars (also called Gayfeathers) of the Liatris genus have general characteristics of: Stem leaves narrow and lance shaped, the flower heads appear on a spike and contain 5 to 60 small tubular 5-lobed pink-purple flowers. Local variations in species populations will be observed. Rootstocks are corms and rhizomes. L. scariosa grows on erect stems from 1 to 3+ feet in height. Stems have fine ridges and usually have some fine hair particularly in the upper part. Stem color is greenish below shading to reddish in the upper parts. Leaves are both basal and stem. Leaves have a long elliptic to lanceolate shape, usually without hair and are widest just above the middle. The basal leaves are longest, up to 10 inches long and 1-1/2 inches wide. Stem leaves reduce in size gradually (the usual case) abruptly or sometimes not at all, but in any case, they are numerous but not densely packed on the stem. Middle stem leaves average 4-1/2 inches long and 3/8 inch wide, while the upper stem leaves will average 2-1/2 inches by 1/4 inch. The inflorescence is a spike of button shaped, 3/4 to 1 inch long flower heads, longer than wide but not more than 1 1/2 times as long as wide, with a noticeable ascending stalk up to 2 inches long, the stalk with small leafy bracts; heads not densely packed but a little separated. A stem can have 3 to 60 heads (var. novae-angliae has 5 to 30). Leafy bracts are found near the flower heads. Flower heads hold 19 to 80 florets (var. novae-angliae has 35 to 60) which have a pinkish purple corollas with funnelform throats, usually with hair on the inside and the 5 corolla lobes spread outward. The stamens are not exerted but the style is long and deeply bifurcated and because of the number of florets, the styles give a feathery appearance. The phyllaries of the flower head are in 4 to 5 series, oblong-obovate to broadly obovate, unequal in size. Tips are broadly rounded and spreading, but not recurved nor tightly appressed. These are usually without hair but may have translucent margins. These are green with some shading to purple during flowering. Seed: Fertile flowers produce an oblong dry ribbed seed, 4.5mm to 6mm long, that has bristly hair attached for wind dispersion. Varieties: There are three varieties recognized. Details at the bottom of the page.

Habitat: Liatris scariosa prefers full sun in well drained soil with dry to moderate moisture conditions. It is tolerant of some poorer soils but is intolerant of wet soil in the winter. Long-tongued bees and butterflies will visit these plants. It grows from a sub-globose corm-like structure. Names: The genus Liatris is an old name whose meaning has been lost. The species scariosa, means 'thin and dry'. As you can see above, a number of common names have been attached to this plant. The Garden uses the same name as some of the Eastern States whereas Flora of North America calls it Northern Gayfeather. USDA terms it New England Blazing Star - which reflects this particular variety. This is why scientific names are important. The author name for the plant classification for this species, ‘Willd.’ is for Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765-1812), German botanist, a founder of the study of the geographic distribution of plants. He was director and curator of the Botanic Garden of Berlin. He amended the earlier work done by 'L.', which refers to Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist and the developer of the binomial nomenclature of modern taxonomy. The author name of the description of the variety - ‘Lunell’ is for Joel Lunell, (1851-1920) Swedish-American botanist, whose herbarium collection was donated to the University of Minnesota. Comparisons: The button shaped heads of the inflorescence separate this species from the other Blazing Stars except for the Rough Blazing Star, L. aspera. Both species have similar shape heads and both can have stem hair. L. aspera however, has up to 35 florets in the flower head whereas L. scariosa has that as a minimum; also the middle phyllaries of L. aspera have irregularly cut tips.

 

Northern Blazing Star
Northern Blazing Star
The flower heads have a button shape before the florets open and the head elongates.
Northern Blazing Star
Above and below: Flowers of early to mid-August. Below center: Seed heads of late September. Right: Seeds
full plant Northern Blazing Star seeds
Stem hair leaf underside Phyllaries
Stem leaves

Above left: Stems have very hair and a more reddish color near the top, green below.

Above center: The underside of the leaves of var. nieuwlandii have fine hair and are gland-dotted. Var. novae-angliae is usually not gland-dotted.

Above right: The phyllaries of the flower head elongate as the florets open - note they are not tightly appressed nor recurved.

Right: The root consists of a sub-globose corm-like structure with long fibrous roots.

Left: Leaves are numerous but not densely packed on the stem

 

 

 

 

root
 
Below left: The small 5-part flowers just beginning to open on this flower head. Below: The phyllaries of the flower head elongate as the florets open - note they are not tightly appressed nor recurved.
Northern Blazing Star
Northern Blazing Star
Below: Leaves are similar in shape, wider just above the middle, but lower base leaves (bottom) are much longer than the upper stem leaves (top).
Stem and basal leaf
 

Notes: This variety is not native to Minnesota. As the common name implies it is native to the New England States and south as far as Pennsylvania and New Jersey. However, in 1908, 1910, 1913 and 1914 Eloise Butler recorded planting this species, obtained from her foraging area at what is now the Minnehaha Park area of Minneapolis. She noted it was L. scariosa, but as there are no DNR or U of M Herbarium records of this plant being collected in MN she may have misidentified it. The closest one of the varieties comes to Minnesota is var. nieuwlandii in eastern Wisconsin. So that remains a mystery. However, on April 30, 1912, she recorded planting specimens obtained from Horsford's Nursery, Charlotte VT. Later, it does not appear on the Garden Census of 1951 or 1986 but is present on the 2009 Census.

In Minnesota five species of Liatris are considered native and several others have been reported but have never been collected. The native five are L. aspera, Rough Blazing Star; L. cylindracea, Ontario Blazing Star; L. ligulistylis, Large-headed (or Rocky Mountain) Blazing Star; L. punctata, Dotted Blazing Star; L. pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star.

Varieties: There are three accepted varieties of this species, first separated by how many leafy bracts are near the flower heads: var. scariosa has 8 to 20 bracts with head florets numbering 20 to 40. The next two varieties have 20 to 85 leafy bracts near the flower heads and florets number 30 to 80. This group separates into var. nieuwlandii where the lower stem leaves are over one inch wide and gland dotted and var. novae-angliae where the lower stem leaves are usually less than 0.8 inch wide and not gland dotted.

 
 

 
References: Plant characteristics are generally from sources 1A, 32, W2, W3, W7 & W8 plus others as specifically applies. Distribution principally from Wi, W2 and 28C. Planting history generally from 1, 4 & 4a. Other sources by specific reference. See Reference List for details.  
©2014 Friends of the Wild Flower Garden, Inc. Text and photos are by G. D. Bebeau unless otherwise credited. "www.friendsofthewildflowergarden.org" 100414